SubQuery TeamAbout 7 min


Le funzioni di mappatura definiscono come i dati della catena vengono trasformati nelle entità GraphQL ottimizzate che abbiamo precedentemente definito nel file schema.graphql.

  • Le mappature sono definite nella directory src/mappings e vengono esportate come una funzione
  • These mappings are also exported in src/index.ts
  • I file di mappatura sono referenziati in project.yaml sotto i gestori di mappatura.

There are three classes of mappings functions; Block handlers, Event Handlers, and Call Handlers.

Block Handler

I file di mappatura sono referenziati in <0>project.yaml</0> sotto i gestori di mappatura. Per ottenere ciò, un BlockHandler definito verrà chiamato una volta per ogni blocco.

import { SubstrateBlock } from "@subql/types";

export async function handleBlock(block: SubstrateBlock): Promise<void> {
  // Create a new StarterEntity with the block hash as it's ID
  const record = new starterEntity(block.block.header.hash.toString());
  record.field1 = block.block.header.number.toNumber();

A SubstrateBlockopen in new window is an extended interface type of signedBlockopen in new window, but also includes the specVersion and timestamp.

Event Handler

È possibile utilizzare gestori di eventi per acquisire informazioni quando determinati eventi vengono inclusi in un nuovo blocco. Gli eventi che fanno parte del runtime Substrate predefinito e un blocco possono contenere più eventi.

Durante l'elaborazione, il gestore di eventi riceverà un evento di substrato come argomento con gli input e gli output tipizzati dell'evento. Qualsiasi tipo di evento attiverà la mappatura, consentendo l'acquisizione dell'attività con l'origine dati. You should use Mapping Filters in your manifest to filter events to reduce the time it takes to index data and improve mapping performance.

import {SubstrateEvent} from "@subql/types";

export async function handleEvent(event: SubstrateEvent): Promise<void> {
    const {event: {data: [account, balance]}} = event;
    // Retrieve the record by its ID
    const record = new starterEntity(event.extrinsic.block.block.header.hash.toString());
    record.field2 = account.toString();
    record.field3 = (balance as Balance).toBigInt();

A SubstrateEventopen in new window is an extended interface type of the EventRecordopen in new window. Oltre ai dati dell'evento, include anche un id (il blocco a cui appartiene questo evento) e l'estrinseco all'interno di questo blocco.

Call Handler

I gestori di chiamata vengono utilizzati quando si desidera acquisire informazioni su determinati elementi estrinseci del substrato.

export async function handleCall(extrinsic: SubstrateExtrinsic): Promise<void> {
  const record = new starterEntity(
  record.field4 = extrinsic.block.timestamp;

The SubstrateExtrinsicopen in new window extends GenericExtrinsicopen in new window. Viene assegnato un id (il blocco a cui appartiene questo estrinseco) e fornisce una proprietà estrinseca che estende gli eventi tra questo blocco. Additionally, it records the success status of this extrinsic.

Query States

Il nostro obiettivo è coprire tutte le origini dati per gli utenti per i gestori di mappatura (più dei soli tre tipi di eventi dell'interfaccia sopra). Pertanto, abbiamo esposto alcune delle interfacce @polkadot/api per aumentare le capacità.

Queste sono le interfacce che attualmente supportiamo:

Queste sono le interfacce che attualmente NON supportiamo:

  • api.tx.*
  • api.derive.*
  • api.query.<module>.<method>.at
  • api.query.<module>.<method>.entriesAt
  • api.query.<module>.<method>.entriesPaged
  • api.query.<module>.<method>.hash
  • api.query.<module>.<method>.keysAt
  • api.query.<module>.<method>.keysPaged
  • api.query.<module>.<method>.range
  • api.query.<module>.<method>.sizeAt

See an example of using this API in our validator-thresholdopen in new window example use case.

RPC calls

We also support some API RPC methods that are remote calls that allow the mapping function to interact with the actual node, query, and submission. A core premise of SubQuery is that it's deterministic, and therefore, to keep the results consistent we only allow historical RPC calls.

Documents in JSON-RPCopen in new window provide some methods that take BlockHash as an input parameter (e.g. at?: BlockHash), which are now permitted. We have also modified these methods to take the current indexing block hash by default.

// Let's say we are currently indexing a block with this hash number
const blockhash = `0x844047c4cf1719ba6d54891e92c071a41e3dfe789d064871148e9d41ef086f6a`;

// Original method has an optional input is block hash
const b1 = await api.rpc.chain.getBlock(blockhash);

// It will use the current block has by default like so
const b2 = await api.rpc.chain.getBlock();

Modules and Libraries

To improve SubQuery's data processing capabilities, we have allowed some of the NodeJS's built-in modules for running mapping functions in the sandbox, and have allowed users to call third-party libraries.

Please note this is an experimental feature and you may encounter bugs or issues that may negatively impact your mapping functions. Please report any bugs you find by creating an issue in GitHubopen in new window.

Built-in modules

Currently, we allow the following NodeJS modules: assert, buffer, crypto, util, and path.

Rather than importing the whole module, we recommend only importing the required method(s) that you need. Some methods in these modules may have dependencies that are unsupported and will fail on import.

import { hashMessage } from "ethers/lib/utils"; // Good way
import { utils } from "ethers"; // Bad way

Third-party libraries

A causa delle limitazioni della macchina virtuale nella nostra sandbox, attualmente supportiamo solo librerie di terze parti scritte da CommonJS.

We also support a hybrid library like @polkadot/* that uses ESM as default. However, if any other libraries depend on any modules in ESM format, the virtual machine will NOT compile and return an error.

Custom Substrate Chains

SubQuery può essere utilizzato su qualsiasi catena basata su Substrate, non solo Polkadot o Kusama.

Puoi utilizzare una catena personalizzata basata su Substrate e forniamo strumenti per importare automaticamente tipi, interfacce e metodi aggiuntivi utilizzando @polkadot/typegenopen in new window.

In the following sections, we use our kitty exampleopen in new window to explain the integration process.


Create a new directory api-interfaces under the project src folder to store all required and generated files. We also create an api-interfaces/kitties directory as we want to add decoration in the API from the kitties module.


We need metadata to generate the actual API endpoints. In the kitty example, we use an endpoint from a local testnet, and it provides additional types. Follow the steps in PolkadotJS metadata setupopen in new window to retrieve a node's metadata from its HTTP endpoint.

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"id":"1", "jsonrpc":"2.0", "method": "state_getMetadata", "params":[]}' http://localhost:9933

or from its websocket endpoint with help from websocatopen in new window:

//Install the websocat
brew install websocat

//Get metadata
echo state_getMetadata | websocat 'ws://' --jsonrpc

Next, copy and paste the output to a JSON file. In our kitty exampleopen in new window, we have created api-interface/kitty.json.

Type definitions

We assume that the user knows the specific types and RPC support from the chain, and it is defined in the Manifest.

Following types setupopen in new window, we create :

  • src/api-interfaces/definitions.ts - this exports all the sub-folder definitions
export { default as kitties } from "./kitties/definitions";
  • src/api-interfaces/kitties/definitions.ts - type definitions for the kitties module
export default {
  // custom types
  types: {
    Address: "AccountId",
    LookupSource: "AccountId",
    KittyIndex: "u32",
    Kitty: "[u8; 16]",
  // custom rpc : api.rpc.kitties.getKittyPrice
  rpc: {
    getKittyPrice: {
      description: "Get Kitty price",
      params: [
          name: "at",
          type: "BlockHash",
          isHistoric: true,
          isOptional: false,
          name: "kittyIndex",
          type: "KittyIndex",
          isOptional: false,
      type: "Balance",


  • In the package.json file, make sure to add @polkadot/typegen as a development dependency and @polkadot/api as a regular dependency (ideally the same version). We also need ts-node as a development dependency to help us run the scripts.
  • We add scripts to run both types; generate:defs and metadata generate:meta generators (in that order, so metadata can use the types).

Here is a simplified version of package.json. Make sure in the scripts section the package name is correct and the directories are valid.

  "name": "kitty-birthinfo",
  "scripts": {
    "generate:defs": "ts-node --skip-project node_modules/.bin/polkadot-types-from-defs --package kitty-birthinfo/api-interfaces --input ./src/api-interfaces",
    "generate:meta": "ts-node --skip-project node_modules/.bin/polkadot-types-from-chain --package kitty-birthinfo/api-interfaces --endpoint ./src/api-interfaces/kitty.json --output ./src/api-interfaces --strict"
  "dependencies": {
    "@polkadot/api": "^4.9.2"
  "devDependencies": {
    "typescript": "^4.1.3",
    "@polkadot/typegen": "^4.9.2",
    "ts-node": "^8.6.2"

Type generation

Now that preparation is completed, we are ready to generate types and metadata. Run the commands below:

# Yarn to install new dependencies

# Generate types
yarn generate:defs

In each modules folder (eg /kitties), there should now be a generated types.ts that defines all interfaces from this modules' definitions, also a file index.ts that exports them all.

# Generate metadata
yarn generate:meta

This command will generate the metadata and a new api-augment for the APIs. As we don't want to use the built-in API, we will need to replace them by adding an explicit override in our tsconfig.json. After the updates, the paths in the config will look like this (without the comments):

  "compilerOptions": {
    // this is the package name we use (in the interface imports, --package for generators) */
    "kitty-birthinfo/*": ["src/*"],
    // here we replace the @polkadot/api augmentation with our own, generated from chain
    "@polkadot/api/augment": ["src/interfaces/augment-api.ts"],
    // replace the augmented types with our own, as generated from definitions
    "@polkadot/types/augment": ["src/interfaces/augment-types.ts"]


Now in the mapping function, we can show how the metadata and types actually decorate the API. The RPC endpoint will support the modules and methods we declared above. And to use custom rpc call, please see section Custom chain rpc calls

export async function kittyApiHandler(): Promise<void> {
  //return the KittyIndex type
  const nextKittyId = await api.query.kitties.nextKittyId();
  // return the Kitty type, input parameters types are AccountId and KittyIndex
  const allKitties = await api.query.kitties.kitties("xxxxxxxxx", 123);`Next kitty id ${nextKittyId}`);
  //Custom rpc, set undefined to blockhash
  const kittyPrice = await api.rpc.kitties.getKittyPrice(

If you wish to publish this project to our explorer, please include the generated files in src/api-interfaces.

Custom chain rpc calls

To support customised chain RPC calls, we must manually inject RPC definitions for typesBundle, allowing per-spec configuration. You can define the typesBundle in the project.yml. And please remember only isHistoric type of calls are supported.

  types: {
    "KittyIndex": "u32",
    "Kitty": "[u8; 16]",
  typesBundle: {
    spec: {
      chainname: {
        rpc: {
          kitties: {
                description: string,
                params: [
                    name: 'at',
                    type: 'BlockHash',
                    isHistoric: true,
                    isOptional: false
                    name: 'kittyIndex',
                    type: 'KittyIndex',
                    isOptional: false
                type: "Balance",